The Committee considered 2 factors in dealing with this issue. Steggerda Accessory water sources in outdoor environments are recognized. Such uses include pilot projects and preliminary studies, whether or not they are part of a sponsored project. The ’96 Guide provides a bit more guidance on the need for an alternative or emergency power supply in the event of power failure. John G. Some biomedical studies can be conducted in farm settings, and some agricultural studies need uniform laboratory conditions to minimize environmental variability. The objective of the Guide for laboratory animals is to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in biomedical or behavioral research, teaching, and testing in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. The section on space recommendations with the accompanying tables has not been changed substantially with respect to content. No. The Guide is written for a diverse group of users, and its guidelines are intended to be applied to many species of animals in varied settings, types of institutions, and uses. The first Guide was published in 1963; the first AWA regulations were released in 1966; and the first National Institutes of Health (later PHS) policy was issued in 1971. It is recognized that certain treatment processes used by manufacturers may reduce the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in some types of bedding. Overall, the chapter on veterinary medical care reflects the same underlying principles of the 1985 Guide . The guidelines on temperature and humidity are essentially the same with 2 exceptions. You may request permission to: For most Academic and Educational uses no royalties will be charged although you are required to obtain a license and comply with the license terms and conditions. It was also recognized that larger animals of these species do not require the same vertical space as do apes. The ’96 Guide applies to all animals, including farm animals, used in biomedical research. Keeling . . This has led to the development of 2 sets of guidelines, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) and the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (1988) (Ag Guide) . Effective sanitation can be achieved with the appropriate combination of temperature and time of exposure of the surfaces, with actual temperature varying from 143-180?F or more as a function of time. This was deleted and the ’96 Guide just refers to controlling temperatures within plus or minus 2?F of the recommendations stated in Chapter 2. Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. Brown Dimensions for commercially manufactured caging in the United States and floor areas calculated based on these dimensions are done on even or rounded numbers in inches, feet, square inches, or square feet. Fluid 2. ; Institute of Medicine (U.S.);] Cage space recommendations are no longer presented as absolute or ‘minimum.” The recommendations allow use of professional judgment and performance-based outcomes. Criteria and recommendations for recirculating systems are also presented. 32. The Guide is a consensus document resulting from the discussions and decisions of a committee composed of individuals with differing ideas, perspectives, and approaches. Institutional policies and responsibilities. Orville A. Reference to cattle in stanchions was omitted since this is generally a housing method used in production agriculture situations. The Guide acknowledges that new information may influence how and why things are done the way they are; IACUCs must be responsibly flexible as our base of knowledge grows. The beginning of the chapter provides more information on the general factors that should be considered when planning to house and care for animals. The adequacy of the animals' environment and management should be assessed. Sternbach GL, Rosen P. The Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics uses animal laboratory sessions to train emergency medicine residents in manipulative skills. The definition of laboratory animals has been expanded from warm-blooded vertebrates to include all vertebrates. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Previous Guides provided no instruction about this important issue. Animal use and welfare in pharmaceutical research and development Medical research continues apace. Anderson Cancer Center, Columbia University, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Professor Emeritus, University of Southern California, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, © Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Behavioral Management is a Key Component of Ethical Research, Moving Beyond the Absence of Pain and Distress: Focusing on Positive Animal Welfare, Micro- and Macroenvironmental Conditions and Stability of Terrestrial Models, The Role of Feed in Aquatic Laboratory Animal Nutrition and the Potential Impact on Animal Models and Study Reproducibility, About the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Chapter 1: Institutional Policies and Responsibilities, Chapter 2: Animal Environment, Housing, and Management, Committee to Revise the Guide for the Care and use of Laboratory Animals, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. [National Research Council (U.S.). . Committees are used so that different ideas and approaches can be presented, discussed, and resolved. For example, in the ’85 Guide space recommended for animals weighing up to 15-20 kg were adequate for young or adult monkeys, but were not sufficient for young apes. The National Academies Press and the Transportation Research Board have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to offer a variety of options for reusing our content. Individual situations may differ. Although these components were not listed as specific components in the ’85 Guide, they are not new elements. Unfortunately, in many areas of the Guide, objective peer-reviewed data to substantiate specific practices may be lacking, contradictory, or ambiguous. The need for adhering to all legal rules and regulations in obtaining animals is emphasized, particularly as it relates to USDA Class B dealers and threatened or endangered species. The purpose of the Guide, as expressed in the charge to the Committee to Revise the Guide, is to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. The ’85 Guide included a temperature range of 64.4?F. The guidelines on food include use of irradiated diets as an alternative to autoclaving, use of moderate caloric or protein restriction for clinical and husbandry reasons, and the use of ‘treats,” varied diets, and abrupt changes of diet. Protocols should contain criteria for initiating euthanasia that ensures that the end point is humane and the objective of the protocol is achieved. There are now 7 groups of monkeys. Finally, there is more detail on the control of contamination and what is required in the surgical support and postoperative recovery areas. The Surgery section is expanded to include the importance of presurgical planning, personnel training, aseptic and surgical technique, animal well-being, and the physiologic status of the animal. Bezig met 0103-0004 Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical Research aan de Tel Aviv University? Animals used in either biomedical or agricultural research may be housed in cages or stalls or in paddocks or pastures. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (1997) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996) Rodents (1996) Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edition (1995) Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs (1994) Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals (1992) Sections on sheltered or outdoor housing and naturalistic environments have been added. The ’85 Guide ( NRC 1985 ) has been a good and useful document and did not need to be completely rewritten. Benefits, limitations, and specific considerations for these types of housing situations are discussed. Scient … Therefore, the Guide for laboratory animals encompasses traditional laboratory settings and farm settings. Gonder Decisions on categorizing research uses of farm animals, determining the setting (farm or laboratory), and defining standards for their care and use should be based on user goals, protocols, and concern for animal well-being. The AWA (implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or USDA) and PHS Policy (implemented by the National Institutes of Health, Office for Protection from Research Risks or OPRR) are regulations, written by government officials. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals , 7th ed, 1996, National Academy Press, 125 p, ISBN 0-309-05377-3. Engineering standards are prescriptive, design and program oriented, and do not specify goals or outcomes. In this course, which is approved by the Dutch government, you learn how to use the 3Rs (replace, reduce and refine) when setting up and carrying out animal experiments. Examples of justification of multiple major survival surgery have been expanded to include conservation of scarce animal resources. Characteristics of acceptable primary enclosures remain essentially the same except for reference to such things as the behavioral needs of the animals. No animals are safe from experimentation—primates, dogs, rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, fish, and cats are just a few of the animals who are routinely used in these tests. The importance of continuing and thorough assessment of surgical outcomes is emphasized to ensure that the procedures are appropriate and that timely corrective changes are made. Rather than specifically referring to coved floor/wall junctions it states they should be designed to facilitate cleaning. The Guide has broader and more universal use than just by AWA and OPRR regulated institutions. Unusual or unique needs arise that cannot be foreseen or addressed in a document like the Guide that must have general applicability. It is organized around major components of animal use: The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities—a resource of proven value, now updated and expanded. Since 1961, the process of developing the Guide has been independent of governmental influence. The ’96 Guide is the 7th edition. Goals of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors are emphasized. In the ’96 Guide there is added narrative stating that aseptic surgery should accommodate the species and complexity of the surgery. It has been suggested that the Guide and Ag Guide be combined. The Guide is also intended to assist investigators in fulfilling their obligation to plan and conduct animal experiments in accord with the highest scientific, humane, and ethical principles. Housing systems such as ventilated caging and isolators are mentioned, and it is emphasized that these systems may require different husbandry practices. The ’96 Guide includes a recommendation for covering viewing windows in situations where exposure to light or hallway activities is undesirable. Sarah Kohn For example, while some data is available on a given topic involving very specific circumstances applicable only to a very limited set of research settings, its application to general guidelines for all research settings could be problematic. The new version of the Guide with about 200 pages suggests the minimum standards and offers numerous recommendations in this field. For information on how to request permission to translate our work and for any other rights related query please click here. Several new items are included in the ’96 Guide . The Guide predates the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and the PHS Policy . The ’96 Guide allows temperature and humidity ranges to be modified for acclimated species in sheltered or outdoor facilities. It is noted that brief, frequent, and moderate fluctuations in temperature and humidity are tolerated by most species. Jo Ann D. Reference to tie stalls for horses has also been omitted. The frequency and intensity of sanitation may vary in different settings based on numerous factors including the housing systems or experimental protocols. Each committee has been charged with the task of formulating appropriate guidelines, taking into consideration such critical factors as species of animals, research uses of animals, settings in which animals are used, necessary resources, and ethical considerations. In addition to commercially prepared and usually pelleted natural ingredient diets of varying specification (eg, quality control and assurance of ingredients), semisynthetic or completely synthetic diets and all-liquid preparations can be formulated for use in certain kinds of research. References have been updated and some areas have been expanded. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. 3. With group housing, less actual space per animal may be needed because of the way each individual uses the total space. The IACUC is now charged with establishing a mechanism for receipt and review of concerns involving the care and use of animals at the institution. Prior Guides were more comprehensive, and the recommendations were more extensive and thorough than previous AWRs. As a general rule, laboratory animals minimally consume 4%–6% of their body weight in food daily. We felt obligated to society, science, and animals to update and improve the previous guidelines where possible. Robb 1977 Dec;6(12):543-5. Quarantine, Stabilization, and Separation has been expanded and updated. Cleanliness 4. Regardless of the category of research, institutions are expected to provide oversight of all research animals and ensure that their pain and distress are minimized. Visual inspection is mentioned as a means of assessment. Table of contents for Laboratory Animals, 54, 6, Dec 01, 2020. It was recognized that employee participation in the OH&SP should not be based solely on the frequency or duration of animal contact. The recommended temperature range for rabbits has been increased to 72?F, recognizing the difficulty for many institutions in meeting previous guidelines and the ability of the animals to adapt to these slightly higher temperatures. Get this from a library! Click here to obtain permission for Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Additional narrative is also provided conceming desirable properties of building materials, including the use of nontoxic materials on surfaces with which animals will have direct contact. ), J. Derrell Clark, Gerald F. Gebhart, Janet C. Gonder, Michale E. Keeling, Dennis F. Kohn, The 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, ILAR Journal, Volume 38, Issue 1, 1997, Pages 41–48, https://doi.org/10.1093/ilar.38.1.41. Therefore, these decisions should be made locally by the IACUC. Committee on the Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Copy the HTML code below to embed this book in your own blog, website, or application. Authors should note this information is available from source laboratories and animal vendors. This type of housing, if used, should be approved by the IACUC and the Ag Guide should be referred to for recommended space. Conversely, performance standards are outcome oriented. Other criteria and methodologies for determining, more accurately, the ventilation needs of animals under different situations are provided. The item Some uses of laboratory animals represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in Biddle Law Library - University of Pennsylvania Law School. Information on farm animals is incorporated in all chapters throughout the Guide rather than concentrated in a special farm animal section. It is meant to serve as an independent reference for the care and use of agricultural animals just as the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ( NRC 1985 ) has served users of animals in biomedical research and teaching” ( Consortium for Developing a Guide 1988 ). Some examples are inclusion of farm animal terms and examples, exclusion of the term ‘laboratory” animals and general reference to housing, not caging. . To purchase multiple copies ($6.50 for 2-9 copies; $5.95 for 10 or more copies) contact the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20005. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. However, a number of changes in content or emphasis have been made to address new issues and information. . You can help stop this. They do not allow for professional judgment or modification in the event that acceptable alternative methods are available or unusual circumstances arise. Directive 2010/63/EU Directive 2010/63/EU revising Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes was adopted on 22 September 2010. The importance of IACUC oversight in implementing the Guide is stressed, regardless of the institution's regulatory requirements (such as animal species and funding source). This performance approach is desirable because many variables (such as the species and previous history of the animals, facilities, expertise of personnel, and research goals) often make the engineering approach impractical or unwarranted. It has been developed by the scientific community as a part of a self-governance strategy rather than as a regulatory or policy document of the government. This approach necessitates a focus on animal well-being and development or definition of appropriate assessment criteria for specific situations. to 84.2?F. The following points highlight the top four common laboratory animals employed in the laboratory for research purpose and for the diagnosis of the diseases… Some additional discussion and information are provided on water treatment. They constitute a ‘one-size-fits-all” approach. Labelling of the cages 7. Guidelines on the use of hot water for sanitation are expanded. The Guide acknowledges that the same lighting requirements for albino rodents may not be applicable to nonalbino animals and nonrodent species. There is more emphasis on individual case-by-case evaluation of the hazards and the risks posed rather than such broad categorizations. Ghent University is convinced of the added value animal research has on the development of knowledge at the benefit of humans and animals. The 1986 PHS Policy was expanded and provided more details than previous ones. Accordingly, the revised Guide emphasizes the institution's responsibility to prepare IACUC members by providing ‘suitable orientation, background materials, access to appropriate resources, and, if necessary, specific training...” Another institutional responsibility is the conduct of an occupational health and safety program. The Guide has been partially reorganized to include an introduction and 4 chapters on the major components of an animal care and use program: institutional policies and responsibilities; animal environment, housing, and management; veterinary medical care; and physical plant. The information offered in the Guide is state of the art and based primarily on scientific findings and performance standards. The purpose of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide), as expressed in the charge to the Committee for the Update of the Guide, is to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate. The recommendations are based on published data, scientific principles, expert opinion, and experience with methods and practices that have proved to be consistent with high-quality, humane animal care and use. Animal care and use have been moving toward the performance-based approach for years. J. Wesley IACUCs and animal care personnel are given discretion in deciding how best to satisfy those duties. The Guide incorporates recent research on commonly used species, including farm animals, and includes extensive references. The scope of Chapter 2 has been broadened beyond that of husbandry alone. An important objective of the Committee when addressing protocols was to make clear that the IACUC has both local authority and responsibility for monitoring and oversight of proper care, use, and humane treatment of animals at its institution. Pricing for a pre-ordered book is estimated and subject to change. References on noise have been updated, and radios and other noise generators are discouraged unless they are part of the protocol or an enrichment program. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide) was first published in 1963 under the title Guide for Laboratory Animal Facilities and Care and was revised in 1965, 1968, 1972, 1978, and 1985. Rigid guidelines on frequency of bedding change are not provided, but achievement of certain outcomes should be assured. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece. The care and use of animals evoke strong emotions and opinions. Vandenbergh Some aspects of recent Guides have changed very little from earlier editions. We are moving from rigid standards and environments made of stainless steel, concrete, and epoxy paint to a softer approach, which allows some flexibility in standards and focuses on enrichments, animal comfort, and behavior-compatible conditions within the limits of the experimental design. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide) was first published in 1963 under the title Guide for Laboratory Animal Facilities and Care and was revised in 1965, 1968, 1972, 1978, and 1985. It needs to, as many health challenges still remain unmet. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. . The reference to substantial animal contact of previous Guides has been omitted. Animal environment, husbandry, and management. Guidelines and standards for a specific animal species, in a specific setting, in a specific institution, and for a specific use may be relatively easy to write. The Introduction and Chapter I of the Guide emphasize the important role of the IACUC in implementing the guidelines and identifies its authority, responsibility, and discretion in this role. Historically, we think it will be viewed as a ‘watershed” Guide in the conversion from engineering to performance standards. It is emphasized that the differences in these environments can be significant and implies that measurement of the characteristics of the microenvironment might be necessary in order to assure that the environment is appropriate. ASPAis implemented by the Home Office in England, Scotland and Wales and by the Department for Health, Social Security and Public Safety in Northern Ireland. After the first Guide, each revised edition has been based on preceding versions and expanded and updated as appropriate based on factors improving research quality and animal well-being. Sections on waste disposal; pest control; and emergency, weekend, and holiday care have been expanded but contain no major changes. In animal experiments the well-being of laboratory animals is most important. Housing and care for farm animals used in biomedical research might or might not differ from those in agricultural research. Total redundancy is seldom practical or necessary. In general, topics related to husbandry are essentially unchanged. Since the Committee's goal was to write contemporary guidelines, we did not feel limited by outdated information or restricted by existing regulations. The characteristics of techniques and procedures that are appropriate for rodents and farm animals are explained in greater detail than in the ’85 Guide, again, with an emphasis on the importance of outcomes related to animal well-being. The question has evolved around biomedical versus agricultural use. The introduction has been expanded and includes comments about evaluation criteria, use of farm animals, nontraditional species, and field studies. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities—a resource of proven value, now updated and expanded. Revision of the Guide was a peer process by an unbiased, objective, balanced, expert committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences. Baldwin . Specifically, the concept of cumulative heat is introduced. Also, users, IACUCs, animal care givers, and producers must use professional judgment in making specific decisions regarding animal care and use. A brief statement describing the legislative controls on animal care and use should be provided. This section has been expanded to include suggested criteria to use in evaluating the means for euthanasia. Discussion of the physical environment begins with definitions of microenvironment and macroenvironment. The use of animals in experiments and testing is regulated under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (ASPA) adopting the principles of the 3Rs(Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). The chapter contents have been reorganized or expanded into sections on physical environment, behavioral management, husbandry, and population management. Introduction Laboratory animals are used for different studies It may include bioassay, preclinical studies etc. This type of housing might be considered a form of restraint, necessitating justification, consideration of the experimental protocol, and provision for exercise. We will not charge you for the book until it ships. The most noteworthy change in cage size recommendations involves nonhuman primates, which have been divided into monkeys and apes. The Committee's goals were to (1) update the document to make the ’96 Guide current in compliance areas, state-of-the-art techniques and equipment, and science; and (2) use performance standards rather than engineering standards whenever appropriate. Ransom L. Animal studies continue to play an invaluable role in meeting these challenges – both in experimental research, and in ensuring maximum safety of treatments before their use in humans, which is legally required. The ’96 Guide has been partially reorganized and rewritten. If the price decreases, we will simply charge the lower price.Applicable discounts will be extended. The role and responsibilities of IACUCs were updated and expanded to more accurately reflect contemporary views and to approximate the AWRs and PHS Policy . In some instances, however, it may be impractical or unnecessary to observe each animal daily such as when animals are housed in large outdoor settings. VandeBerg White The 2 latter documents differ somewhat regarding IACUC composition, duties, and responsibilities. Gwathmey The increasing demand for high-standard animal models, together with a critical view of the way animals Judith K. Consensus Study Report: Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. The importance of proper installation of flooring is emphasized. The Guide encourages continued research into improved methods of animal care and use. . We publish prepublications to facilitate timely access to the committee's findings. In the past decade, the performance-based concept has gained momentum. G.F. A daily check for water availability is recommended. No person or committee could write a document that is universally acceptable. Marilyn J. Because guidelines for animal care and use with broad applicability are needed, the Guide often makes general recommendations, the details of which must be addressed locally with specific standard operating procedures, decisions by animal care personnel and users, and institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) approvals. Since 1963, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has served as a primary, contemporary guide for animal care and use in the United States. And additions in chapters 1 through 4 are briefly described below per animal may acceptable. Maximum weights listed in the Guide is state of the animals case-by-case evaluation of the animal Act! These performance specifications must be considered in preparation and review of protocols production agriculture situations edition. Minimizing stress-induced behaviors are emphasized program oriented, and other areas support the growth of microorganisms as important! 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